ItemVelocity relationships of isolated galaxy pairs in support of MOND-type theories(Oxford University Press, 2023-04-14) Penner, A. RaymondThe MOND-type theories of AQUADratic Lagrangian (AQUAL) and GRavitational Anti-Screening (GRAS) are applied to isolated galaxy pairs. Theoretical relationships between their intervelocities, line-of-sight velocities, and their baryonic masses will be derived. These relationships will be compared with observations taken of a set of 3970 highly isolated pairs. The theoretical velocity relationships and distributions provided by AQUAL and GRAS are found to be in very good agreement with these observations. This agreement indirectly implies that there is no fall-off in the rotational curves of galaxies, which remain flat out to large distances. ItemReply to the comment on "A scratch-guide model for the motion of a curling rock"(Springer, 2019-11-14) Penner, A. RaymondSeveral issues were raised in the Comment on “A scratch-guide model for the motion of a curling rock.” A reply to these comments is provided. ItemGravitational anti-screening and predictions within the solar system(Springer, 2020-04-02) Penner, A. RaymondThe theory of gravitational anti-screening, which has previously been applied to various astronomical observations as an alternative to dark matter, is now applied to the solar system. The effect that gravitational anti-screening has on the precession rate of the planets will be determined and compared to current observations. In addition, the effect that gravitational anti-screening will have on certain orbital parameters of long-period comets will be determined. The set of 119 long-period comets that are considered in this paper have a broad peak of aphelion distances, based on current gravitational theory, centred at approximately 50 kAU. In the case of gravitational anti-screening, these aphelion distances will be shown to be greatly reduced to a narrow distribution centred at approximately 10 kAU. It is further found from the theory that comets orbiting at this distance will have orbital speeds approximately 20% greater than that predicted from Newtonian gravitational theory. ItemA scratch-guide model for the motion of a curling rock(Springer, 2019-02-22) Penner, A. RaymondA model based on a scratch-guide mechanism being responsible for the curl of a curling rock is presented. The model is based on the postulate that when the asperities around the rear of the running band of a curling rock cross the scratches produced by the front of the running band, at an angle due to the rotation of the curling rock, a sideways force will be exerted on them. It is shown that such a mechanism does lead to a curl distance of the correct magnitude and one that is insensitive to angular velocity. The model is then compared to previous experimental results where it is found to be in good agreement. ItemGravitational anti-screening as an alternative to dark matter(Nova Science Publishers, 2018-07) Penner, A. RaymondThe theory of gravitational anti-screening is an alternative to the current theory of dark matter. It is based on a model of the analogous screening of electric charges by virtual electric dipoles that is found in QED. Applying the same model to gravitation leads to anti-screening and results in the apparent mass of a galaxy having the same functional dependence on the galaxy’s baryonic mass and the observation distance that is found with the Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relationship. The screening of electric charge as found in QED and the larger apparent masses of galaxies and galactic clusters would therefore appear to be two sides of the same coin. In this chapter the theory of gravitational anti-screening and the cases where it has been applied will be reviewed. This includes first applying the theory to the rotational curve of the Galaxy, to spiral galaxies in general, and to the Coma cluster. The theoretical results are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding astronomical observations. The theory is then applied to binary galaxies where it is shown that there is a relationship between the line-of-sight velocity difference of the pair and the individual rotational velocities of the galaxies. The theory is in excellent agreement with the observations taken by multiple researchers for the case of the binaries being on radial orbits. The theory will then be applied to the structure of the universe itself. Using a model of the distribution of superclusters, the overall density parameter of the universe, as determined by the theory, is Ω = 1.08 ± 0.19 consistent with a geometrically flat universe. In addition, the energy density which falls out from the theory has a negative pressure associated with it. This leads to an acceleration of the universal expansion without the requirement of dark energy. Finally, the theory will be applied to the solar system where it will be shown to be compatible with planetary ephemerides.