ItemThe role and contribution of educational activities in UNESCO mountain biosphere reserves(VIU Press, 2022-04) Gower, Jonathan L.; Price, Martin F.; Ruck, AndyThe provision of educational activity in BRs is officially guided by Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), a UNESCO endorsed education programme. However, the independence accorded to BRs, and the diversity of circumstances they represent, mean they also innovate educational activities to reflect local characteristics. In addition, the ways in which Mountain Biosphere Reserves (MBRs), specifically, implement educational activity is less well known. This research, therefore, was conducted with the aim of exploring and understanding the role and contribution of educational activities in MBRs, with reference to the influence of institutional and local factors. For this study an online survey was conducted in 2021, with staff from 43 MBRs, from 23 countries, and followed up with 10 qualitative interviews. All data were collected from staff based in MBRs who have knowledge and/or experience of delivering educational activities to local audiences. Survey questionnaires were conducted in English, Spanish and Portuguese, and interviews were conducted in English. Results indicate that MBRs provide a diverse range of educational activities, and that outdoor experiential learning, with small audience groups, is viewed as the most effective approach. While educational aims and objectives are largely aligned with ESD guidance, some are adjusted to reflect the characteristics of the MBR, local land use and the needs of local communities. Educational content is sourced and customised independently by MBR staff, though there is widespread request for a UNESCO MAB educational content platform. Increasing knowledge and understanding is prioritised over behaviour change, and targeting behavioural change relating to local land use is more tangible than when associated with climate change, which remains a complex framing challenge. Insufficient funding is identified as the primary inhibitor of more effective educational activity, in particular for MBRs from lower income countries. ItemThe effect of trampled soil on the biomass allocation of Ambrosia trifida(VIU Press, 2022-04) Choi, Aimee; Rhee, Eunice; Han, Seungkyu; Kim, WoojuneAmbrosia trifida is an invasive species that is believed to have first arrived in Korea with the American troop deployment during the Korean War and has since taken root in the ecosystem. Ambrosia trifida is most commonly found in military or developmental areas where there is a high level of human activity. Since trampled soil is a result of human activity, this study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the growth process of Ambrosia trifida in trampled soil by examining biomass allocation. Biomass allocation indicates how the plant optimizes resources by distributing nutrients to different parts of the plant. By measuring the number of leaves, stem length, stem thickness, and root growth of Ambrosia trifida, this study found that plants in the control group allocated more resources to their leaves. On the contrary, plants in trampled soil allocated more resources to their roots. There were no significant differences between the control group and the treatment group in stem length, stem thickness, and the number of leaves. ItemUpdates to the EuroMab Literature Database 2021-2022(VIU Press, 2022-04) Gledhill, MarkThe EuroMab Literature Database starting in 2021 has had significant updates to the overall database. This article details the significant updates and changes that has occurred to the database during 2021 to March 2022 period. ItemInternational Journal of UNESCO Biosphere Reserves - Volume 6, Issue 1 (2022) (VIU Press, 2022-04)Volume 6, Issue 1 of the International Journal of UNESCO Biosphere Reserves.