ItemThe themes and peculiarities of the Islamic State’s propaganda(2023-05-02) Nemecek, Niall; Oates, LaurynThe propaganda of the Islamic State utilizes a number of complex themes in order to radicalize and recruit adherents to the organization which has been demonstrably unique compared to other ostensibly similar extremist groups. In a content analysis, the primary sources of the Islamic State’s publications were studied to determine the nature of the major themes and the frequency of this use. Once identified, interviews were conducted with professionals involved in de-radicalization or counterterrorism efforts to ascertain the impact on individuals from those overarching themes. Further, Coalition Information-Related Capabilities doctrine was used as an analytical framework to analyze the Islamic State’s implementation of propaganda, as well as to help feed recommendations to counter Islamic State narratives. This study’s findings suggest that while there are numerous factors that can lead to radicalization from the Islamic State’s propaganda, there are a number of pathways to mitigate the efficacy of the identified themes. Keywords: Islamic State, propaganda, radicalization, violent extremism ItemEmpowering women through microfinance in post-conflict Bosnia & Herzegovina(2022-12-02) Sheikh, Samra; Madan, AthenaWomen become vulnerable victims of conflict and disaster, that have major implications on gender relations. Consequently, they are not just seen as victims of conflict, but also as agents of change. This can have positive impacts on their lives and their communities in post-conflict rebuilding. Using a community-based participatory approach (CBRP), this research examines the lived of experiences of Microfinance Institution (MFI) loan recipients in post-conflict Bosnia & Herzegovina (BiH) where microfinancing had emerged as a tool that addressed poverty and socio-economic development and the empowerment of women. Using a mixed-methods approach, the study revealed that women who invested in small scale entrepreneurship promoted women’s empowerment, alleviated household debt, and provided access to healthcare and education for themselves and their children. Keywords: microfinance, empowerment, gender equality, poverty, socioeconomic development, widows, survivors, women, genocide, human security, post-conflict, rebuilding ItemThe needs and stories of male survivors of child sexual abuse, exploitation and human trafficking(2022-11-02) Mariaca Pacheco, Ena Lucia; Manion, KathleenThe process of identifying a male victim of child sexual abuse and exploitation (CSEA) is difficult for both the survivor and frontline professionals. Boys and men face multiple barriers to disclosure of their childhood sexual abuse and exploitation and experience various negative and detrimental effects that can cause re-traumatization and stop a male victim from finding and accessing support. This exploratory research interviewed first-hand accounts of 40 male survivors of child sexual abuse and exploitation, and 30 field experts specializing in male child sexual abuse and human trafficking. This study uncovers and identifies the social interactions that harm and aid male survivor recovery and healing, as well as further exploring the barriers that hinder disclosure. In addition, it identifies several indicators and long-term consequences of child sexual abuse and exploitation seen within male children and in adulthood. This study also explores various modus operandi of male victimization from the starting age of their first instance of abuse and length of abuse for male victims. This paper also examines the roles played by female CSEA perpetrators, including the characteristics of female abusers, traffickers, and buyers (exploiters and abusers). Furthermore, it discusses the methodologies which drive cyber-enabled CSEA and the creation of online child sexual abuse materials (CSAM). This research highlights the importance of trauma-informed training, personal reflection on potential biases that could harm male survivors, and the importance of increasing frontline service providers’ knowledge on male sexual violence symptomology, to better support male victims and survivors towards post-traumatic growth and healing. ItemFrom overtourism to COVID in Nepal : exploring the relationship between human security and tourism(2022-07-22) Daszko, Brian; Bird, GeoffThe aim of this research is to explore the relationship between human security and tourism in Nepal and use the findings to theorize on post pandemic tourism development. Two key theoretical concepts were used: tourism area life cycle and the human security model. Semi- structured interviews with key informants working in the Nepali tourism provided insights into the relationship. The study findings suggest that tourism impacts the human security of Nepalese populations, providing benefit but also sometimes leading to conflict as defined by Bird (2011). Pre-Covid, the research would have been conducted in the context of overtourism. Carried out during the COVID pandemic, the research was conducted in the context of a loss of employment and earnings. Good governance was found to be key in achieving successful tourism development and human security outcomes, reflective of the need to control growth in order to ensure the best human security outcomes. Tourism was found to share a relationship with human security whereby the two extremes of overtourism and no tourism both decreased human security. However, there are conditions under which tourism is beneficial to human security. Finally, COVID was found to represent a crisis point of tourism in Nepal. While people are hopeful for a return to the benefits accrued by tourism, the future remains uncertain. There is a need for a humanitarian approach with the return of tourism post-COVID, envisaged as hopeful tourism. ItemBusiness networks & transnational organizations : the role of coalitions in reducing modern slavery(2020-08-15) Glavine, BryanThis study asks how coalitions of business networks and transnational organizations can minimize labour exploitation and practices of modern slavery within supply chain networks. Focusing on the Asia-Pacific region, this work offers original insight into how private sector actors are adapting to this emerging non-traditional business threat. Findings are gleaned from a series of semi-structured interviews with experts working within the field of supply chain management. Based on the data gathered, the work offers four main conclusions. First, there is a serious lack of corporate understanding around the concept of modern slavery, why it exists and how to recognize it within a firm’s supply chain. Second, there are fundamental shortcomings of the laws and legislation currently in place to address modern slavery in supply chains. Third, business actors understand that modern slavery can pose a significant business risks, such as bad publicity and financial loss, which can serve as a motivator for companies to learn about modern slavery and how to implement organizational change within their networks. Finally, businesses were willing to collaborate and find solutions to modern slavery within their supply chains in a manner that was also sustainable for their companies’ bottom line, and can potentially benefit from coalitions that provide training, tools and coaching to address practices in their supply chains.