ItemPublic opinion on designation of Korea DMZ as UNESCO biosphere reserve(VIU Press, 2021-04) Jung, Chanwoo; Kim, Yeji; Kurebayashi, Asuka; Lee, WonjuThe Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), which is home to numerous rare and endangered flora and fauna, has been protected from human interference and environmental disruption for almost 70 years. Several areas around the DMZ are designated as UNESCO Biosphere Reserves yet certain areas are not. This article hypothesized that there may be differences in the public opinion regarding the UNESCO Biosphere Reserves between the designated and non-designated DMZ areas. A survey of DMZ area residents was conducted to understand those differences. From July 26 to August 1, 2020, surveys were conducted with 410 residents in the DMZ area. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, there were no significant differences in the opinion or awareness in both areas. Both groups of residents cherished their natural environment and were positive towards protecting it through its designation as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. They also showed a lot of similarities rather than differences in their opinion and awareness. Accordingly, factors other than residents’ perception need to be explored to determine why certain areas around the DMZ are designated as UNESCO Biosphere Reserves while others are not. This article concludes that if residents in the DMZ area are given adequate information regarding UNESCO Biosphere Reserves, sustainable development will continue within designated areas and movement in support of designation as UNESCO Biosphere Reserves will likely occur in non-designated areas. ItemThe spotlight on youth: Young people as key stakeholders in biosphere reserves and the Man and the Biosphere Programme(VIU Press, 2021-04) Barraclough, Alicia Donnellan; Måren, Ingel Elisabeth; MAB Youth ConsortiaSustainable development has at his heart the mission to make our planet a life-sustaining place for future generations. Young stakeholders are key to sustainability transformations, both as active participants that push them forward but also as actors vulnerable to being left behind. As testing sites for sustainable development, Biosphere Reserves (BRs) are home to millions of young people in over 124 countries. Very little research or knowledge exists on how young people experience living in BRs, how they contribute towards BRs’ goals, or how they see BRs moving forward under global change. To increase young stakeholder’s visibility and inclusion in the MAB programme, UNESCO-MAB has organized two MAB Youth Forums attended by over 300 youth, one in Italy in 2017 and one in China in 2019. Here we present a short commentary on what we believe were the main take-away’s generated during these events and the research that followed them. Firstly, we present a research note of the first global-level study on young stakeholder’s perspectives of BR implementation, discussing a thematic analysis of the results generated during the MAB-Youth Forum workshops and surveys. Secondly, we present an overview of the “MAB Youth Declaration”, a collaborative text which was generated over the course of four days and which distils the main messages young people living in BRs wish to convey to the MAB community and beyond. Our paper highlights the important role young stakeholders play in BRs, whose understandings reflect the social, economic and ecological complexity in which BRs are embedded. Their concerns span a diversity of topics, from the relevance of fair conservation practices and respect for biocultural diversity, to the importance of sustainable livelihood opportunities and fair youth representation in decisionmaking bodies. Thus, we highlight research findings on the need to increase young stakeholder integration and participation within environmental governance. Finally, we urge the BR research community to practice youth-inclusive research that helps generate knowledge to support evidence-based decision making in BRs. ItemPlant phenology research and monitoring pilot project at Milner Gardens & Woodland(VIU Press, 2021-04) Pyett, Jessica R.; Klassen, Heather A.; Thelin, Larissa C.Global climate is changing and its impacts can be seen throughout Vancouver Island. This research studies the relationships between climate and coastal plant phenological development in order to build our understanding of how individual species and ecosystems on Vancouver Island are currently responding to climate. In 2016, a pilot project was initiated at Milner Gardens & Woodland in the Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Region to establish field data collection and management protocols contributing to plant phenology research and monitoring on southeastern Vancouver Island. Data collection methods included both in-person and field camera observations of phenophases throughout the growing season. Data management tasks included the development of a photo observation database and contribution to an international online phenology observation network. Over time, we expect that the data collected will illustrate shifts in the timing of both the growing season and plant development phases on southeastern Vancouver Island, as well as shifts in climatic trends in the study area. Increased understanding of species and ecosystem shifts will contribute to land management and ecosystem conservation in the future. ItemWetland mapping and monitoring in the Regional District of Nanaimo(VIU Press, 2021-04) Tomlin, Haley; Ng-Cornish, Jenica; Pyett, Jessica; Vivani, Alanna; Gilchrist, AlanWetlands play a pivotal role within the Regional District of Nanaimo (RDN), including the Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Region (MABR), providing ecosystem services and significant value to the region. Wetlands in this region face threats including climate change, hydrological changes, urban development, and resource extraction; therefore, it is important that we have a more in-depth understanding of their local roles. This study looks at what part wetlands play in groundwater recharge or discharge. Instrumentation was installed at three sites within the MABR, collecting water levels in three piezometers installed at different depths, precipitation, and daily site photos, with data downloaded every three months and compared to data from the nearest climate, hydrometric, and observation well stations. Data interpretation is still in the initial stages and more data is required in order to confidently conclude the role these selected wetlands have with regards to their connection to the underlying aquifers of the region. ItemGetting to know the SDGs in the Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Region(VIU Press, 2021-04) Vaugeois, Courtney; Hobkirk, Mandy; Vince, Brad; Gould, Victoria; Sakaki, GrahamThis pilot project worked to review how the Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Region (MABR) is contributing to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at the local level. It is crucial that the SDGs are met locally, nationally, and internationally to achieve a sustainable future for all. Through a qualitative approach, this study explored the how groups within the region are contributing to each Goal. Results found that each of the 17 SDGs are being contributed to in the MABR, though some Goals, including Goal 15, receive more support than others.