ItemDetermining Conditions That Enable or Impede the Inclusion of Climate Justice in Municipal Adaptation Planning in Canada(2023) Lash, Jennifer, Robin; Dale, AnnAbstract Governments are increasingly turning to adaptation planning to prepare for the onset of climate change. A climate justice framework in adaptation planning seeks equity by ensuring all parts of society receive the benefits required to address their vulnerabilities. This thesis examined the extent and quality of climate justice in municipal adaptation planning in Canada to identify the conditions that enable or impede climate justice. Levels of justice were measured in twelve municipal adaptation plans in Canada using an Adaptation Justice Index. Interviews with municipal planners explored the conditions that affect their ranking. Results found that capacity, engagement, leadership, process design, worldview, and continual learning are the insertion points at which justice can be included or excluded. Furthermore, integrating climate justice requires an iterative process of evolving values which influence and could continually improve the process structure.